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The humble proton may seem simple enough, and they’re certainly common. People are made of cells, cells are made of molecules, molecules are made of atoms, atoms are made of electrons, protons, and neutrons. And protons are each made of three up or down quarks. Simple stuff, right? All except for that last part. Protons are actually made of many, many quarks that happen to look like three only when we look at them in a particular way. And even then, sometimes they’re made of 5 quarks – including the charm quark.
Image Credit for 6:28 (https://youtu.be/TbzZIMQC6vk?feature=shared&t=388):
Proton Animation. Courtesy of James LaPlante, Sputnik Animation. © MIT and Jefferson Lab, 2021, All Rights Reserved. The Visualizing the Proton Project is presented by the MIT Center for Art, Science & Technology, Jefferson Lab, and US Department of Energy’s Office of Science.
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01:24 The Physics of Scattering
03:06 Using Electrons To Study Protons
04:11 3 Quark Proton Model
05:28 The Quark Sea
06:56 Charm Quark Evidence
08:04 Intrinsic Vs. Extrinsic Particle
09:51 The Uncertainty of Proton Experiments
11:09 QCD & Heisenberg Uncertainty
12:33 Proving the Theory of Intrinsic Charm
13:41 Testing Intrinsic Charm with AI